Carnatic music thalam basics of investing
the collaboration, the Carnatic musicians and Tamil devotional songs argues that “the west” seems to have a cultural investment in never meeting the. The true form of music is none other than the Lord, thus by being a diligent student of Carnatic music, we are able to better discern our own. 5. Boosts self confidence: Being able to play a song or a tune is an achievement and that surely going to add extra points in the confidence. BITCOIN ATM IN GEORGIA
Fine or bold lines, doubled or shaded, twisted, or stretched, the thick or fine lines embellishing the Kolam are like gamaka: subtle ornamentation that sways and curves, producing the ascending or descending notes of the melody form which give a particular mood to a raga.
VAAK 07 In my eyes these ephemeral drawings appear to be geometrical metaphors illustrating the idea of time in Hinduism; a cyclical time where creation and destruction alternate, giving rhythm to the universe and human life. Sometimes, their silent presence offers me the unique opportunity to savour a moment of eternity and at other times, I have the impression I am beholding a miniature temple encircled by walls, and in the centre, its sanctum.
It seems to me that my understanding of Indian and Tamil culture grew clearer watching the ritual of this feminine hand gesture, deciphering in a playful and visual way all the various philosophical speculations. By repeating motifs or lines, we try at all costs to suspend the present moment. The hand tunes the breath on the delicate weft of dust, which becomes a pattern and immobilizes time.
And that is when awareness of our finitude occurs, but in Hinduism there are no Parcae sisters to preside over human destiny by severing the thread of life, and there is no mode of despair, void or melancholy found in Vanitas still life paintings. But instead of emphasizing fate, Hindu philosophies have highlighted the cyclical manifestation of the universe that appears and disappears, as the Kolam vanishes in the evening, to be born again the next day, revitalized.
Hic et Nunc — here and now — that is what is at stake in this early morning maze. But one must start all over again to retain the images in this frail canvas, repeated over time; one has to harmonize breath to hand movements, to embrace the present moment, the whimsical thoughts, the metamorphosis of the world and the fleeting incarnations of the unspeakable. The journey does not end there, there are so many streets and dirty roads to explore.
Then, there is this exhilarating pleasure to discover with a pounding heart, a unique Kolam, unheard of, sitting there, majestic, on the threshold of a house and distilling throughout its short existence the fragrances named delicacy, enchantment, patience, humility, and serenity. A graduate of Sorbonne University, Chantal Jumel is a freelance researcher, traveler and writer, specialised in Indian visual and performing art.
There are also organisations involved in the production of digital content. And then there are copyright owners, and this includes artists, creators, production and media houses, and independent publishers. In this vast creative ecosystem that is only growing by the day, it is easy to publish content for educational purposes without an intention to plagiarise, but sometimes without the permission of the copyright owner as much as it is easy to plagiarise and upload digital content.
Clearly, this is a complex space, and the complexities can be dealt with to arrive at a fair resolution of copyright disputes only if there is a good grip on what the legal system says about copyright laws in the country. Ananth: Indian copyright law is laid out in a self-contained parliamentary legislation, the Indian Copyright Act, the Act. However, the Act does not stop with protecting these works against copyright infringement through the grant of certain exclusive rights to their owners.
It also grants moral rights to authors. These special rights continue to remain with authors even after they transfer their copyright to a publisher or any other entity and help them in asserting authorship over their works if not duly credited for their authorial efforts and preventing any distortions, mutilations or other modifications to their works that potentially cause a dent to their authorial reputation or honour.
Thus, the law aims to comprehensively secure property rights and other rights to creators, with the aim of incentivising creative activity. At the same time, it provides a legal channel for these property owners to deal with their rights in a fair manner, largely through voluntary contractual arrangements, such that society benefits from access to these creative works.
Vaak: Who is this law applicable to? Ananth: The law has relevance for, and applicability to, all four players in the content ecosystem — authors and creators, producers and investors, distribution channels, and end users. Authors are the original owners of works in most circumstances, but industry practices often dictate that they assign ie. The latter group then negotiate with distribution channels — radio stations, Cover image: The Court buildings, Madras, c.
In certain settings such as radio broadcasting, when negotiations fail, the designated public authority steps in to fix royalty rates and facilitate compulsory access. Finally, the end users access works through various channels, and either pay for the copy of the work provided to them or resort to the fair dealing provision that exempts them from taking permission before consuming a work.
It is also worth noting that copyright protection is available both to Indian works and foreign works the latter subject to some international conventions and treaties, and statutory conditions , though the enforcement of such rights will be as respects infringing activities that take place within India. Vaak: What is Copyright Infringement? Under the Copyright Act, copyright owners have certain exclusive rights such as the right to reproduce the work, issue copies of it to the public, perform the work in public, make cinematograph films or sound recordings based on the work etc.
Both civil remedies like injunction and monetary compensation, and criminal remedies like penalties and imprisonment, are available to copyright owners, depending on the severity of the infringing activity. Moreover, infringement also includes secondary activities that support primary acts of infringement, such as permitting, for commercial gain, the use of any place from where infringing copies of a work are communicated to the public.
Such place can include virtual spaces such as digital platforms. Thus, if the composer in the aforementioned example notifies Youtube that a song that sounds similar to her musical work is uploaded on the platform, Youtube has to take down that song at least for 21 days. After the 21 day period, the take down will only continue if the composer manages to obtain a judicial order supporting her claim. Ananth: Under the Copyright Act, any behavior that is excused under Section 52 will not amount to infringement.
The purpose behind fair use is to acknowledge that there are some trivial or legitimate uses of copyrighted works, which simply cannot be a voided, or which must in fact be actively promoted for the greater good of society. For example, it would be difficult to carry a news report on acultural event if the news organization is expected to take copyright license for every song that may be played at this event, and which forms a part of the news broadcast.
Therefore, VAAK 12 Section 52 allows exemption from copyright infringement for purposes such as news reporting, criticism or review of a work, private or personal use including research etc. There are many other exceptions too provided in this section. Some of the more prominent ones are educational and instructional uses, library purposes, judicial orders and official gazette notifications, sound recordings at not-for-profit clubs and residential premises, performances for the benefit of religious institutions, and the tailoring of works in accessible formats for the benefit of persons with impaired access to such works.
So far as a content creator who relies upon an existing copyrighted work is concerned, she should first check the listed exceptions in Section 52 and see whether her proposed use falls within any of the enumerated exceptions contained therein. If yes, she can safely proceed with making use of the existing work. If not, she then has to explore the possibility of identifying the copyright owner and seeking a license.
Vaak: Can you tell us how this law can be applied to digital content creators? Ananth: When it comes to creative activity, copyright law makes no distinction between the various forms or medium in which works are created. Thus, regardless of whether a song is notated in a book, recorded in a studio, or hummed for the first time during a Facebook live event, the composer of the tune shall be entitled to the same level of copyright protection.
In fact, there are some distinct advantages for digital content and related production models that arise from the reality that, unlike in the case of patents or trademarks, copyright exclusivity does not require mandatory registration of works in question. In a digital world, with its velocity and volume of content, this instantaneous rights protection is very useful. Moreover, owners of digital content can also take self-help measures in the form of encryption technologies.
Vaak: What should digital content publishers know about copyright laws? Ananth: Digital publishing is a domain where the law diverges on certain key features from analog modes of publishing. Take cinematograph films for instance. A amendment to the Act makes it clear that music composers and lyricists are entitled to an equal share of royalties as the film producer for all uses made of their respective works, except in the case of theatrical revenues VAAK 13 which the film producer gets to keep entirely, besides that which he must contractually share with the theatrical distributors.
Most of these subsequent uses in turn are digital avenues for content dissemination. Similarly, even if music composers or lyricists have transferred their rights to film producers or investors, such transfers will not automatically cover future technologies most of which are digital these days.
Thus, separate transfers have to be effected on a later date for exploiting these works in the digital realm. Again, while radio broadcasting gets the benefit of royalty rates fixed by a public authority without these broadcasters having to independently negotiate with each sound recording label , the Bombay High Court has made it clear that digital streaming players like Spotify and Wynk cannot avail of this provision and must, instead, seek voluntary licenses first.
Finally, digital intermediaries like YouTube which traditionally host content rather than curating them unlike a Netflix, for instance get the benefit of a fair dealing exception wherein they are not liable for copyright infringement. However, when information is passed to such intermediaries by way of a complaint that a hosted video is infringing in nature, they have to immediately take it down for a day period.
Within such period, the onus is on the complainant to get a judicial order to ensure that the take-down decision is extended beyond 21 days. His research interests are in the fields of technology policy, intellectual property rights, and innovation scholarship. In Surya, Raza presents an arrangement of shapes and earthly colours which evolve from dark to light, following the natural sequence of night into day. Here he utilises vibrant red, electric blue, black, ochres and white while maintaining harmony in the use of simple geometry and pure colour.
Here, the vocabulary of pure plastic form acquires an integral purpose: to relate the shape and rhythm of these forms to Nature. Inscribed on the reverse in takri: [sri] raga dipak chautha 7? In the first set, each musical mode is described as a person. In the second, Kshemakarna compares each raga, ragini wife or ragaputra son to a sound either found in nature: such as the hiss of a snake or the song of a bird; or made by a human activity, such as churning butter or washing clothes.
Indra carries his large steel ankus in one hand and his vajra or thunderbolt as the god of rain in the other. His scarf flies in the wind as the faithful Airavata charges ahead at great speed, effortlessly balancing the oil lamp on the curling tip of his trunk. A flame darts sharply upwards, emitting a whisper trail of smoke.
According to mythology, Airavata reaches deep down into the underworld to suck up its waters which he then sprays in the clouds for his master Indra to make the rain, thereby linking the waters of the sky with those of the underworld. References: 1. Inscribed on the reverse in takri: dipak raga raputra raga hamela ch[?? Hemala Ragaputra is shown as a young yogi, perhaps Mahadeva, seated meditating on the summit of a craggy mountain, attended by a pair of confronted jackals who keep watchful guard below him.
Mahadeva is seated cross-legged in the padmasana lotus position, counting his string of rudrakshamala beads made from the seeds of the evergreen broad-leaved tree Elaeocarpus ganitrus. The simple, organic jewellery mala , made by foraging the fruits of nature, is much more suitable for a yogi in the wilderness than the princely gold and jewels worn by Rama in cat.
Further strings of rudrakshamala form necklaces, armbands and bracelets for our ascetic, while snakes writhe around his waist and through his ear lobes as a belt and earrings. Meditation bowls, cloths, staffs and crutches zafar takieh complete his minimal accoutrements. The Indian jackal Canis aureus indicus , also known as the Himalayan jackal, is a subspecies of golden jackal native to Pakistan, India, Bhutan, Burma and Nepal.
Golden jackals appear prominently in Indian and Nepali folklore where they often take over the role of the trickster played by the red fox in Europe and north America. Though clearly leading a life of austere practice, unlike Mahadeva she is adorned by especially rich jewellery of pearls and gold.
A drawing depicting Hemala as a bearded ascetic meditating in the rain is illustrated in Klaus Ebeling, Ragamala Painting, , p. The Berlin picture also has a backdrop with a thunderstorm atmosphere, an element of the iconography prescribed by Kshemakarna that is missing from our picture, perhaps on account of the fact that Shiva is never depicted in the rain. Inscribed on the reverse in takri: sri raga daputra raga g a uda hibha?? Ragamalas are an unequal blend of music, poetry and painting; painters are not musicians, and poets such as Kshemakarna may have little knowledge of musical performance despite excelling at poetry.
According to Klaus Ebeling in Ragamala Painting, , p. He notes that by musical standards it is very untechnical, especially when compared with the system devised by the ancient musical author Hanuman, whose visual couplets are followed by verses listing musical properties such as scales, leading notes and performance times.
It is thus with interest that we study this painting of music accompanying a vigorous dance. The drummer leans forward, urging the dancer on. The Waldschmidts illustrate in fig. Similar in size to the mridanga but with drum-heads of equal width, the mardala is slung by a strap over the left shoulder and played with a curved stick in one hand and by the palm of the other, thus generating two different types of sound for a syncopated rhythm.
The mridanga has by contrast drum-heads of differing diameters, the larger one producing a lower bass note while the smaller creates a higher pitch. Notes on both types of drum can also be resonated together, producing harmonics as well as beats. The drum is tuned by leather straps laced in a zig zag around its circumference and held in a state of high tension to stretch out the goatskin membrane covering the apertures on each end.
Wooden pegs are slid under the straps for fine tuning, here only on the left side thus raising the pitch on that face. Similar attention to details applied to the figures who wear the striped shorts sported by acrobats, athletes, strong men and fairground performers in Pahari paintings.
He is known as the embodiment of all knowledge and the Vedas themselves. He learned all the vedas and all the Vidya Sthanas from Surya, the Sun god. Anjaneya replied that he would face his Guru Lord Surya and run along backwards in the same direction of the Sun and receive the vedic knowledge from him and Lord Surya need not stop. Upon this agreement, Hanuman took the coaching for twelve years. The Vidya Sthanas are eighteen in number.
Anjaneya the Sangeetha Exponent In carnatic sangeetha tradition there are two classes of sakas branches , one is known as Narada tradition and the other is known as Hanumath tradition. It is said that Saint Tyagaraja was the follower of Narada tradition. Sri Muthuswamy Dhikshathar is follower of Hanumath tradition. The celestrial sages, Sri Narada and Sri Tumburu, were great players of the fretted veenas. But there was clash of ego between them leading to bitter rivalry.
Both of them would participate in function and compete in all the competition. At the end of the duel nobody would be able to say who is superior. Their ego was seeking a final decision as to who is best. The matter was brought before Lord Narayana Sri Vishnu , who with a mischievous smile hugging His face suggested seeking the remedy for this from Lord Anjaneya who is an exponent in Sangeetha Sastra.
A date was fixed for the contest at the convenience of Lord Anjaneya. On the day fixed there was a big assembly of Devatas. Both Sri Narada and Sri Tumburu were seated on either side of the dais with their fretted veena ready to play and Lord Anjaneya was seated in the center.
The congregations of Devatas were eager to listen to the sound of the most divine instrument Veena from the sages who had mastered the playing on the instrument. Firstly Sri Tumburu started his veena vadhan and the Devatas forgot to wink their eyes, all their attention drawn by the mystical tones emanating from the instrument.
Slowly they could realise that world was coming to a standstill position devoid of any activity. Even sea waves stopped, oceans started freezing, birds stopped flying and those flying stopped mid air. Such were the effects of the music of Sri Tumburu. He was playing the raga Amirthavarshini which is normally played for bringing rain when effected by drought.
Now Lord Anjaneya signaled Sri Narada to play the instrument. Sri Narada started playing his fretted veena and the mesmerising tones emerging from the veena vadhan started moving around like a sweet fragrance enveloping the atmosphere. So sweet was the tone that it brought realisation in every thing.
Bringing back dynamism, ocean started melting, waves started tiding, birds started flying with renewed verve. Sri Narada was playing the raga Punnagavarali. This kriti when sung, will make you feel the fragrance enveloping around you. The final judgement by Lord Anjaneya Now that the contesters had finished playing, the attention of the congregation turned towards the His Lordship — the Judge — Lord Anjaneya.
Since this time also both had done their best, how Lord Anjaneya is going to judge as to who is better? Returned to his seat and patiently started removing each of the frets in the instruments. Everybody started wondering as to what Lord Anjaneya is trying to do. Sri Narada lost his cool and asked Lord not to monkey around the instrument and to give the judgment. Lord Anjaneya replied that both of them had played well, but before the judgment could be given asked them to play the Veena in the present state ie, veena instrument without fret.
Both Sri Narada and Sri Tumburu said it is impossible to play the veena without fret. Hanumath Veena Lord Anjaneya with a smile in his face took a small bamboo piece bamboo in wholesome is cylindrical in shape and slides this bamboo piece over the melody strings and by using his nails as plectrums plucked the melody strings. The melody that flowed out was no compare to the one that was played by the sages.
The melodious tone along with the drone with a soothing continuity had drowned the audience Devas in an immense pleasure and joy as that of having the nectar. Lord continued playing, making both Sri Narada and Sri Tumburu realise the power of pure music. The audience were so immersed in the music, they had not noticed that Lord Narayana Himself had come to the scene to witness the music of Lord Anjaneya.
When Lord Anjaneya concluded playing, both the sages accepted that their music is no match to that of Lord Anjaneya. Lord Narayana told that He was drawn to theplace by the music produced by the Adi Veena, the one without fret and a forerunner to the present veena used by both Sri Narada and Sri Tumburu.
Lord explained to the sages that music however good it may be, with ego mixed it becomes lifeless and music with devotion is life, pure, real, and divine. The music of Sri Anjaneya was enchanting since it was over brimming with devotion, but that of the sages were with ego hence devoid of purity.
Lord Narayana declared since Lord Hanuman had reinvented the original form of fretless veena it will henceforth be called as Hanumath Veena. In times the Hanumath veena was known by the name Chitra veena. What is the lesson we have learnt here.. Quoting the words of Lord Narayana once again.. Music as such practised with wholesome devotion will bring all prosperity in our life like name, fame, money, disciples etc.
These are the by-products of divine music. Not to forget the great Vainika — Ravana As per Hindu mythology Raavan was a great devotee of Lord Shiva and was very regular in his worship. It is said that to get the Aatma Lingam from Lord Shiva for his mother, he took out his nerves and used it as strings for playing Rudra Veena. He had to do this for getting the darshan of Shiva and thus obtaining Aatma Lingam from the Lord who was very much pleased with this act of Raavana. Never hold your breath while singing.
The airflow is what creates and carries your vocal tone, so keep it flowing. Avoid Clavicular Breathing and Belly Breathing — instead, learn the proper way to breathe for singing, called diaphragmatic breathing. Fill the lower portion of your lungs as if you had an inner tube around your waist that you were evenly filling. A singer will gain power to their voice by strengthening the muscles in their ribcage and back.
During performance it is very important to communicate the message of the song. It is most likely they did not even notice. Develop the strength and coordination of the diaphragm and become a pro at controlling the speed of the airflow released, the quantity of the airflow released and the consistency of the airflow released. Be sure to train your voice with vocal exercises on a regular basis to keep your voice in shape.
Learn to sing with your full and natural voice by developing your vocal strength and coordination. Then add stylistic nuances to achieve any singing style you desire. Never guess the pitch you are about to sing. Hear the note in your head before you open your mouth. Many students tend to hold their breath as they sing higher. Let the air flow. Try increasing your airflow and gauge your result.
Be sure to avoid patterned breathing. Singers must negotiate phrase lengths of all different sizes, so it is important to be versatile. If you are having trouble getting your body completely involved with singing, try doing some cardiovascular activities, like jumping jacks, for a few minutes before getting started again.
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Chanced upon your blog and my search stopped- :. Great work. Shall wait for more to come. Sudha Gayathri 25th Nov, I just like to mention the good work you did in terms of compiling the notes. I am pursuing Sangeetha Visharada diploma course at Telugu university and completed 3 year.. Your blog helped me prepare the required notes for English medium.. Thanks again Prasanna garu for the great work you did! It has been a bridge across the the tough times of my life.
I would like to channel my inner passion of music and portray it in a professional Manner. I have been trained in carnatic music for the past 10 years under the guidance of my guru, 'Srimathi Prabha Sriram'. Writing this exam would not only boost my profile on co-scholastic activities but also enlighten me about the vast ocean of music. This exam would give me better access to persue music in my future endeavors. I am Indebted to you Thank you so very much, Madam Dr. Bharati Rao 14th March, Dear Ms.
Prasanna, You have done a great service to students of Carnatic Classical Music through your blog. Keep up the good work and the devotion. Metronome Humans are intrinsically given to imperfection. So when we try maintain Tala using our intrinsic sense of rhythm, we tend to make errors in timing. So we can avoid that by taking the help of a metronome. Constant practice with a metronome significantly improves our internal sense of time. The metronome works by providing us clicks or other sounds at regular intervals.
We can change the tempo of the metronome to our requirement. The metronome offers us very precise control of the placement of beats.
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