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#### Predecessors[ edit ] An example of hand-drawn etched traces on a PCB Before the development of printed circuit boards, electrical and electronic circuits were wired point-to-point on a chassis.

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The name operational amplifier is derived from one of the original uses of op-amp circuits; to perform mathematical operations in analog computers. This traditional application is discussed later in this chapter. Early op-amps used a single inverting input. A positive voltage change at the input caused a negative change at the output.

Hence, to understand the operation of the op-amp, it is necessary to first become familiar with the concept of controlled dependent sources since they form the basis of the op-amp model. In contrast, passive devices produce a voltage or current whose value is determined by a voltage or current existing at the same location in the circuit. Both independent and dependent voltage and current sources are active elements.

That is, they are capable of delivering power to some external device. Passive elements are not capable of generating power, although they can store energy for delivery at a later time, as is the case with capacitors and inductors. The figure below illustrates an equivalent circuit configuration of an amplifying device often used in circuit analysis. The rightmost resistor is the load. We will find the voltage and current gain of this system.

Voltage gain, Av is defined as the ratio of output voltage to input voltage. Similarly, current gain, Ai is the ratio of output current to input current. The output terminal is vout. The power supply connections are often omitted from schematic drawings. The two input terminals are known as the non-inverting and inverting inputs respectively. Ideally, the output of the amplifier does not depend on the magnitudes of the two input voltages, but only on the difference between them.

We define the differential input voltage, vd, as the difference, 7 The output voltage is proportional to the differential input voltage, and we designate the ratio as the open-loop gain, G. Thus, the output voltage is 8 As an example, an input of E is usually a small amplitude applied to the non-inverting input with the inverting terminal grounded, produces at the output.

When the same source signal is applied to the inverting input with the non-inverting terminal grounded, the output is. The input impedance of the op-amp is shown as a resistance in Figure 2 b. The output impedance is represented in the figure as a resistance, Ro. An ideal operational amplifier is characterized as follows: These are usually good approximations to the parameters of real op-amps.

Typical parameters of real op-amps are: Using ideal op-amps to approximate real op-amps is therefore a valuable simplification for circuit analysis. Let us explore the implication of the open-loop gain being infinite. If we rewrite Equation 8 as follows: and let G approach infinity, we see that 10 Equation 10 results by observing that the output voltage cannot be infinite.

This small standing current in the output transistors establishes the output stage in class AB operation and reduces the crossover distortion of this stage. Small-signal differential mode[ edit ] A small differential input voltage signal gives rise, through multiple stages of current amplification, to a much larger voltage signal on output.

Input impedance[ edit ] The input stage with Q1 and Q3 is similar to an emitter-coupled pair long-tailed pair , with Q2 and Q4 adding some degenerating impedance. The input impedance is relatively high because of the small current through Q1-Q4. The common mode input impedance is even higher, as the input stage works at an essentially constant current. This differential base current causes a change in the differential collector current in each leg by iinhfe.

This portion of the op amp cleverly changes a differential signal at the op amp inputs to a single-ended signal at the base of Q15, and in a way that avoids wastefully discarding the signal in either leg. To see how, notice that a small negative change in voltage at the inverting input Q2 base drives it out of conduction, and this incremental decrease in current passes directly from Q4 collector to its emitter, resulting in a decrease in base drive for Q On the other hand, a small positive change in voltage at the non-inverting input Q1 base drives this transistor into conduction, reflected in an increase in current at the collector of Q3.

Thus, the increase in Q3 emitter current is mirrored in an increase in Q6 collector current; the increased collector currents shunts more from the collector node and results in a decrease in base drive current for Q Besides avoiding wasting 3 dB of gain here, this technique decreases common-mode gain and feedthrough of power supply noise. Output amplifier[ edit ] Output transistors Q14 and Q20 are each configured as an emitter follower, so no voltage gain occurs there; instead, this stage provides current gain, equal to the hfe of Q14 resp.

The output impedance is not zero, as it would be in an ideal op amp, but with negative feedback it approaches zero at low frequencies. Overall open-loop voltage gain[ edit ] The net open-loop small-signal voltage gain of the op amp involves the product of the current gain hfe of some 4 transistors.

Other linear characteristics[ edit ] Small-signal common mode gain[ edit ] The ideal op amp has infinite common-mode rejection ratio , or zero common-mode gain. In the typical op amp, the common-mode rejection ratio is 90 dB, implying an open-loop common-mode voltage gain of about 6. The 30 pF capacitor stabilizes the amplifier via Miller compensation and functions in a manner similar to an op-amp integrator circuit. This internal compensation is provided to achieve unconditional stability of the amplifier in negative feedback configurations where the feedback network is non-reactive and the closed loop gain is unity or higher.

The potentiometer is adjusted such that the output is null midrange when the inputs are shorted together. The output range of the amplifier is about one volt less than the supply voltage, owing in part to VBE of the output transistors Q14 and Q Later versions of this amplifier schematic may show a somewhat different method of output current limiting.

Applicability considerations[ edit ] While the was historically used in audio and other sensitive equipment, such use is now rare because of the improved noise performance of more modern op amps. Apart from generating noticeable hiss, s and other older op amps may have poor common-mode rejection ratios and so will often introduce cable-borne mains hum and other common-mode interference, such as switch 'clicks', into sensitive equipment.

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Depending on the input type, op-amp can be classified as Inverting Amplifier or Non-inverting Amplifier. In previous Non-inverting op-amp tutorial , we have seen how to use the amplifier in a non-inverting configuration.

In this tutorial, we will learn how to use op-amp in inverting configuration. Inverting Operational Amplifier Configuration It is called Inverting Amplifier because the op-amp changes the phase angle of the output signal exactly degrees out of phase with respect to input signal. Same as like before, we use two external resistors to create feedback circuit and make a closed loop circuit across the amplifier.

In the Non-inverting configuration , we provided positive feedback across the amplifier, but for inverting configuration, we produce negative feedback across the op-amp circuit. The R2 Resistor is the signal input resistor, and the R1 resistor is the feedback resistor.

This feedback circuit forces the differential input voltage to almost zero. The voltage potential across inverting input is the same as the voltage potential of non-inverting input. So, across the non-inverting input, a Virtual Earth summing point is created, which is in the same potential as the ground or Earth. The op-amp will act as a differential amplifier. So, In case of inverting op-amp, there are no current flows into the input terminal, also the input Voltage is equal to the feedback voltage across two resistors as they both share one common virtual ground source.

Due to the virtual ground, the input resistance of the op-amp is equal to the input resistor of the op-amp which is R2. This R2 has a relationship with closed loop gain and the gain can be set by the ratio of the external resistors used as feedback. As there are no current flow in the input terminal and the differential input voltage is zero, We can calculate the closed loop gain of op amp.

Learn more about Op-amp consturction and its working by following the link. Gain of Inverting Op-amp In the above image, two resistors R2 and R1 are shown, which are the voltage divider feedback resistors used along with inverting op-amp. R1 is the Feedback resistor Rf and R2 is the input resistor Rin.

Op-amp Gain calculator can be used to calculate the gain of an inverting op-amp. Practical Example of Inverting Amplifier In the above image, an op-amp configuration is shown, where two feedback resistors are providing necessary feedback in the op-amp. The resistor R2 which is the input resistor and R1 is the feedback resistor. The input resistor R2 which has a resistance value 1K ohms and the feedback resistor R1 has a resistance value of 10k ohms.

We will calculate the inverting gain of the op-amp. The feedback is provided in the negative terminal and the positive terminal is connected with ground. Now, if we increase the gain of the op-amp to times, what will be the feedback resistor value if the input resistor will be the same? As the lower value of the resistance lowers the input impedance and create a load to the input signal.

In typical cases value from 4. When high gain requires and we should ensure high impedance in the input, we must increase the value of feedback resistors. At the same time, the magnitude of the quiescent current is relatively insensitive to the characteristics of the components Q1—Q4, such as hfe, that would otherwise cause temperature dependence or part-to-part variations. Through some[ vague ] mechanism, the collector current in Q19 tracks that standing current.

Output amplifier[ edit ] In the circuit involving Q16 variously named rubber diode or VBE multiplier , the 4. Then the VCB must be about 0. This small standing current in the output transistors establishes the output stage in class AB operation and reduces the crossover distortion of this stage.

Small-signal differential mode[ edit ] A small differential input voltage signal gives rise, through multiple stages of current amplification, to a much larger voltage signal on output. Input impedance[ edit ] The input stage with Q1 and Q3 is similar to an emitter-coupled pair long-tailed pair , with Q2 and Q4 adding some degenerating impedance.

The input impedance is relatively high because of the small current through Q1-Q4. The common mode input impedance is even higher, as the input stage works at an essentially constant current. This differential base current causes a change in the differential collector current in each leg by iinhfe.

This portion of the op amp cleverly changes a differential signal at the op amp inputs to a single-ended signal at the base of Q15, and in a way that avoids wastefully discarding the signal in either leg. To see how, notice that a small negative change in voltage at the inverting input Q2 base drives it out of conduction, and this incremental decrease in current passes directly from Q4 collector to its emitter, resulting in a decrease in base drive for Q On the other hand, a small positive change in voltage at the non-inverting input Q1 base drives this transistor into conduction, reflected in an increase in current at the collector of Q3.

Thus, the increase in Q3 emitter current is mirrored in an increase in Q6 collector current; the increased collector currents shunts more from the collector node and results in a decrease in base drive current for Q Besides avoiding wasting 3 dB of gain here, this technique decreases common-mode gain and feedthrough of power supply noise. Output amplifier[ edit ] Output transistors Q14 and Q20 are each configured as an emitter follower, so no voltage gain occurs there; instead, this stage provides current gain, equal to the hfe of Q14 resp.

The output impedance is not zero, as it would be in an ideal op amp, but with negative feedback it approaches zero at low frequencies. Overall open-loop voltage gain[ edit ] The net open-loop small-signal voltage gain of the op amp involves the product of the current gain hfe of some 4 transistors. Other linear characteristics[ edit ] Small-signal common mode gain[ edit ] The ideal op amp has infinite common-mode rejection ratio , or zero common-mode gain.

In the typical op amp, the common-mode rejection ratio is 90 dB, implying an open-loop common-mode voltage gain of about 6. The 30 pF capacitor stabilizes the amplifier via Miller compensation and functions in a manner similar to an op-amp integrator circuit. This internal compensation is provided to achieve unconditional stability of the amplifier in negative feedback configurations where the feedback network is non-reactive and the closed loop gain is unity or higher.

The potentiometer is adjusted such that the output is null midrange when the inputs are shorted together.

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